|Titre :||Berber women of Morocco|
|Auteurs :||Cynthia Becker, Auteur ; Björn Dahlström, Auteur ; Salima Naji, Auteur|
|Type de document :||texte imprimé|
|Editeur :||Paris : Fondation Pierre Bergé - Yves Saint Laurent, 2014|
|Autre Editeur :||Casablanca : Malika|
|Format :||1 vol. (191 p.) / ill. en coul., couv. ill. en coul. / 29 cm|
|Note générale :||
Fondation Jardin Majorelle
Authors : Christine Bouilloc, Françoise Cousin, Karin Huet, Titouan Lamazou, Claude Lefébure, Brigitte Perkins, Fatima Sadiqi
|Index. décimale :||700 (Les arts. Beaux arts et arts décoratifs)|
|Mots-clés:||Adornments, Identity, Textile, Rites, Anti-Atlas, Imi N'Tatelt Adghar, Crafts, Ayt Bou Gemmez|
The Berber (Amazigh) identity developed thousands of years ago on a vast territory that stretches from Morocco's Atlantic coast to the borders of the eastern Maghreb. Over the millennia it has proven as remarkably resilient to cultural mixing with other Mediterranean civilizations as to various conquests. Throughout history, women have been the guardians of traditions and language, ensuring the preservation of the tribes' cultural heritage. Transmission has been guaranteed by many symbols that can be found in weaving (the exclusive province of Berber women), jewelry, wickerwork, pottery, tattoos, and henna body painting.
An invitation to travel into the heart of Morocco and Berber culture, this book presents the most beautiful objects —carpets, capes, woven belts, necklaces of amber and coral, silver fibulae— predominantly from the sumptuous collection of the Jardin Majorelle's Musée Berbère in Marrakech. Together with stunning archival photographs and Titouan Lamazou's drawings, it is a tribute to the women who have never ceased transmitting the Berber culture's singular identity.
|Note de contenu :||
Preface (Pierre Bergé) — A Berber Museum at the Jardin Majorelle (Björn Dahlström) —A History of Berber Women in Morocco (Fatima Sadiqi) — Jewelry Art : Masterpieces of Berber Identity (Cynthia Becker) — Body Adornments (Portfolio notes by Cynthia Becker) — Berber Textile Art : A Women's Savoir Faire (Françoise Cousin and Claude Lefébure) — Costumes (Portfolio notes by Christine Bouilloc) — Rites of Passage in the Anti-Atlas : Imi N'Tatelt Adghar (Salima Naji) — Keeping Crafts Alive : An Artisanal Experience in Morocco (Brigitte Perkins) — Return to Ayt Bou Gemmez : Interwoven Journals (Titouan Lamazou and Karin Huet) — Appendices
p. 24 (Kahina, the Berber queen) : "the myth of the pre-Islamic female warrior is present in the memory of Moroccans thanks to one woman: Kahina. The warrior and army leader is remembered for her acts of bravery and her clairvoyant ability to guide her people to resist the Arab invasion in the 7th century CE. This woman surmounted the absolute masculine monopoly of military enterprise to become, through her bravery, a legend and the only uncrowned "she-king" of her time, or in Moroccan history. Indeed, Kahina, whose name means "priestess" or "prophetess" was born in the Aures Mountains in Algeria some time during the 7th century CE. During her lifetime, Arab generals began to lead armies into North Africa, preparing to conquer the area and introduce Islam to the local peoples. Kahina directed the most determined resistance to the 7th century Arab invasions of North Africa. Around 690, Kahina assumed personal command of the African forces, and under her aggressive leadership, the Arabs were briefly forced to retreat. Although the Berbers of the 7th century were not religiously homogenous —Christian, Jewish, and pagan Berbers were spread throughout the region that is now Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya — Kahina emerged as a war leader who could rally all of them during this tense period, and proved amazingly successful at leading the tribes to join together against their invaders. Her reputation as a strategist and sorceress spread, and she managed to briefly unite the tribes of Ifrikya, the Berber name for North Africa, ruling them and leading them in battle for five years before her final defeat. Before taking her own life, Kahina sent her sons to the Arab camp with instructions that they adopt Islam and make common cause with the Arabs. Ultimately, Kahina's sons participated in the invasion of Europe and in the subjugation of Spain and Portugal. Kahina's speeches and poems were all destroyed after her death. Only a three-line poem by her under the title "My Berber Horse" survived:
Run, Run my Berber Horse!
Never defeated by Arabs
Will you forever be! "
p. 28: (Orality) Berber women's orality is ancestral, versatile, and omnipresent. It is stored in literature, poetry, songs, folktales, and public oratory, and is hidden in Arab and Francophone Moroccan literature; it is part of Moroccan identity. This literature is seen as the most authentic and un-Westernized type of literature in Morocco. Women's oral genres cover various topics ranging from love, the self, family, and community, to the struggle for independence against colonialism, and for modernity. Orality has also served as an instrument of language loyalty. Moroccan women have shown loyalty to their mother tongues and the cultures they carry since time immemorial."
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